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Author Topic: RPO NP8 Transfer Case 101  (Read 44076 times)
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sperry
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« on: 02/19/05 10:46 AM »

RPO NP8 Transfer Case Description and Operation
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General Operation



The New Venture Gear model NVG 246 RPO NP8 transfer case is a two speed automatic, active, transfer case. The NVG 246 transfer case has many changes from prior years. The NVG 246 is now classified as an Electronic Architect Upgrade (EAU). The upgrades to the NVG 246 EAU include some of the following internal changes:

    ■ A new encoder motor for faster operation in the AWD mode.
    ■ The control actuator lever (3) is a new design with different cam angles.
    ■ The shift detent plunger and spring is no longer used.
    ■ The clutch assembly (1) uses a new style return spring and clutch washer.
    ■ A new rear output shaft (2) no longer uses a retaining ring by the oil pump.
    ■ The range shift fork (4) is a newer design.

The NVG 246 EAU provides 5 modes, Auto 4WD, 4HI, 4LO, 2HI and Neutral. The Auto 4WD position allows the capability of an active transfer case, which provides the benefits of on-demand torque biasing wet clutch and easy vehicle tuning through software calibrations. The software calibrations allow more features such as flexible adapt ready position and clutch preload torque levels. The technology allows for vehicle speed dependent clutch torque levels to enhance the performance of the system. For example, the system is calibrated to provide 0-5 ft lb of clutch torque during low speed, low engine torque operation, and predetermined higher torque for 40 km/h (25 mph) and greater. This prevents crow-hop and binding at low speeds and provides higher torque biases at higher vehicle speeds, in order to enhance stability.

Transfer Case Shift Control Switch



The NVG 246 EAU transfer case features a 4 button shift control switch located on the instrument panel. When the ignition key is in the RUN position, the transfer case shift control module monitors the transfer case shift control switch to determine if the driver desires a new mode/range position. At a single press of the transfer case shift control switch, the lamp of the new desired position will begin flashing to inform the driver that the transfer case shift control module has received the request for a new mode/range position. The lamp will continue to flash until all shifting criteria has been met and the new mode/range position has been reached, or has been engaged. Once the new mode/range position is fully active, the switch indicator lamp for the new position will remain ON constantly.

During normal driving situations, the transfer case can operate in the Auto 4WD mode. In the Auto 4WD mode, the transfer case shift control module monitors rear wheel slip speed, based on the inputs from both the front and rear propshaft speed sensors. When the vehicle experiences a rear wheel slip condition, the transfer case shift control module sends a pulse width modulated (PWM) signal to an electronic motor, which is the transfer case encoder motor. This motor rotates the transfer case control actuator lever shaft, applying a clutch pack. This clutch pack is designed to deliver a variable amount of torque, normally delivered to the rear wheels, and transfers it to the front wheels. Torque is ramped up to the front wheels until the front propshaft speed sensor matches that of the rear propshaft speed sensor. Torque is ramped down to the front wheels. The process would repeat if rear wheel slip is detected again.

The NVG 246 EAU transfer case has the added feature of also providing the driver with 3 manual mode/range positions:

    ■ 4HI - 4 Wheel Drive high range
    ■ 2HI - 2 Wheel Drive high range
    ■ 4LO - 4 Wheel Drive low range

The driver may choose to select any of these mode/range positions while driving the vehicle. However, the transfer case will not allow a shift into or out of 4LO unless the following criteria has been met:

    ■ The engine is running.
    ■ The automatic transmission is in Neutral.
    ■ The vehicle speed is below 5 km/h (3 mph).

This transfer case also has a Neutral position. A shift to the Neutral position allows the vehicle to be towed without rotating the transmission output shaft. Neutral position may be obtained only if the following criteria has been met:

    ■ The engine is running.
    ■ The automatic transmission is in Neutral.
    ■ The vehicle speed is below 5 km/h (3 mph).
    ■ The transfer case is in 2HI mode.

Once these conditions have been met, press and hold both the 2HI and 4LO buttons for 10 seconds. When the system completes the shift to neutral, the red neutral lamp will illuminate.

The NVG 246 EAU case halves are high-pressure die-cast magnesium. Ball bearings support the input shaft, the front output shaft, and the rear output shaft. A thrust bearing is located inside of the input shaft gear to support the front of the rear output shaft. The transfer case requires Auto Trac® II Fluid GM P/N 12378508 (Canadian P/N 10953626) which is blue in color. The fluid is designed for smooth clutch application. An oil pump, driven by the rear output shaft, pumps the fluid through the rear output shaft oil gallery to the clutch and bearings.

There are two versions of the NVG 246 EAU, which depend on the transmission applications and vehicle applications. If the vehicle is equipped with a transmission RPO M30, the transmission splines in the input gear will have 27 teeth. With this application the planetary carrier assembly will have 4 pinion gears. If the vehicle is equipped with transmission RPO MT1 or MN8, the transmission splines in the input gear will have 32 teeth. The planetary carrier assembly on this application will have 6 pinion gears.

2WD Power Flow



When the NVG 246 EAU is in the 2HI mode, the power flows from the transmission (1) to the input shaft gear (2). The input shaft gear (2) is connected to the rear output shaft (4) by the high/low range collar (3). The range collar (3) outer teeth are engaged with the input shaft gear (2) inner, high-speed position teeth. At the same time the range collar is slip splined to the rear output shaft (4). The rear output shaft (4) delivers the power flow to the rear propshaft (5). The position of the control actuator lever shaft (7) allows no clutch (6) engagement. The high/low range shift fork (8}, is in the high-speed position on the control actuator lever shaft (7).

4HI and AWD Power Flow



In the 4HI mode, the power flow to the rear propshaft (10) is the same as it is in the 2HI mode. To deliver power flow to the front propshaft (13) during the 4HI position, the transfer control module commands the encoder motor (15) to apply the clutch to a calibrated torque. The encoder motor (15) turns the control actuator lever shaft (14). A brake in the encoder motor (15) holds the control actuator lever shaft (14) in the full clutch position. The control actuator lever shaft (14) is cam designed and the cam action moves the clutch lever (4). The clutch lever (4) pivots on the clutch lever pivot studs and moves toward the clutch apply plate, to engage the clutch. As more pressure is applied to the clutch apply plate, the clutch discs are compressed. Using inner clutch discs, which are engaged with the clutch hub (5), and the outer clutch discs, which are engaged with the clutch housing (6), the power flow is delivered to the clutch housing (6). The clutch hub (5) is splined to the rear output shaft (9), and the clutch housing (6) rotates on a needle bearing on the rear output shaft (9). The chain drive sprocket (7) is splined to the clutch housing (6). The power flows from the drive sprocket (7), through the chain (11), to the chain driven sprocket. The driven sprocket is splined to the front output shaft (12). The power flow is delivered to the front propshaft (13) through the front output shaft (12).

During the Auto 4WD mode, the power flow is the same as it is in the 4HI mode. Except, during the Auto 4WD mode, the encoder motor (15) rotates the control actuator shaft lever (14) to the correct torque level positions. Rotating the control actuator (14) to the various positions changes the clutch torque level. When a difference of front propshaft (13) to rear propshaft (10) speed is recognized, the transfer case control modules command for more, or less clutch torque.

4LO Power Flow



When shifting the transfer case to the 4LO mode, it commands the encoder motor (9) to turn the control actuator lever shaft (8}, to move the high/low range shift fork (10). The shift fork (10) moves the high/low range collar (6), which is slip splined on the rear output shaft (7) toward the rear of the transfer case. The range collar (6) outer teeth disengage from the input shaft gear (2) inner teeth. The range collar (6) outer teeth then engage in the planetary carrier (5) teeth. The power flow is now from the input shaft gear (2) planetary teeth to the planetary gears (3) in the carrier. Rotating the planetary gears (3), which are engaged in the annulus gear (4), the planetary carrier (5) rotates. The planetary carrier (5) engaged to the range collar (6), drives the rear output shaft (7), providing a 2.72:1 reduction to the speed of the rear output shaft (7). The power flow to the front propshaft is the same as it is in the 4HI.

A neutral position is obtained when the range collar (6) is not engaged to the input shaft gear (2) or the planetary carrier (5). Neutral position is used for towing the vehicle.

Service 4WD Indicator

The Service 4WD indicator is an integral part of the cluster and cannot be serviced separately. This lamp is used to inform the driver of the vehicle that a transfer case system malfunctioned. The Service 4WD indicator is controlled by the transfer case shift control module via Class 2.

Transfer Case Encoder

The encoder is mounted to the transfer case motor/encoder assembly and is replaced as an assembly. The encoder converts the shift detent lever shaft position, representing a mode or range, into an electrical signal input to the transfer case shift control module. The module detects what position the transfer case is in by monitoring the voltage returned on the encoder signal circuit. This voltage translates into AUTO 4WD, 2HI, 4HI, NEUTRAL, and 4LO or in transition between gears.

Transfer Case Motor/Encoder



The transfer case motor/encoder consists of a permanent magnet (PM) DC motor and gear reduction assembly. It is located on the left hand side, driver's side, of the transfer case. When activated, it turns the shift detent lever shaft of the transfer case, clockwise or counterclockwise, to shift the transfer case. The motor/encoder is controlled with a pulse width modulated (PWM) signal by the transfer case shift control module. This circuit consists of a driver on both the Motor A and Motor B circuits. The encoder motor is bi-directional in order to allow the motor to shift the transfer case from 2HI or 4HI to NEUTRAL and 4LO positions.

Transfer Case Motor Lock

The transfer case motor lock is used to provide a 2HI, 4HI, and 4LO lock-up feature. When the lock circuit is energized, the transfer case encoder motor is allowed to turn. When the transfer case is placed 2HI, 4HI, or 4LO the motor lock circuit is de-energized and the lock is applied. This assures that the transfer case remains in the current gear position until a new gear position is requested. When AUTO is selected, the motor lock remains applied until an adaptive mode, torque being applied to the front propshaft, is required. During an adaptive mode the motor lock circuit is energized and the motor lock is released, enabling the encoder motor to turn and apply or release torque at the front propshaft.

Transfer Case Shift Control Module



The transfer case shift control module uses the VIN information for calculations that are required for the different calibrations used based on axle ratio, transmission, tire size, and engine. The system does not know which calibration to use without this information. When the vehicle is in the AWD mode, the transfer case shift control module monitors the speed of the front and rear propshaft, in order to detect wheel slippage. When wheel slippage is detected, the module applies a clutch pack contained inside the transfer case. This clutch pack is used to lock-in and apply the front propshaft, transferring torque to the front wheels. The clutch pack is applied by a motor/encoder assembly. When slip is no longer detected by the transfer case shift control module, the clutch is no longer applied.

Transfer Case Speed Sensors

There are three speed sensors on the automatic transfer case (ATC), two on the rear output shaft and one on the front output shaft. Each speed sensor is a permanent magnet (PM) generator. The PM generator produces a pulsing AC voltage. The AC voltage level and number of pulses increases as speed increases.

Vehicle Speed Sensor - One of the two speed sensors on the rear output shaft is the vehicle speed sensor (VSS) input to the powertrain control module (PCM). The PCM sends this information to the transfer case shift control module via the Class 2 serial data bus.

Rear Propshaft Speed Sensor - The transfer case shift control module converts the pulsating AC voltage from the rear transfer case speed sensor to a rear propshaft speed in RPM to be used for calculations. The rear propshaft speed can be displayed with a scan tool.

Front Propshaft Speed Sensor - The transfer case shift control module converts the pulsating AC voltage from the front transfer case speed sensor to front propshaft speed in RPM to be used for calculations, and to monitor the difference between the front and rear sensor speed. It is also used in the AUTO, Adapt, mode to determine the amount of slip and the percent of torque to apply to the front axle. The front propshaft speed can be displayed with a scan tool.

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« Last Edit: 02/06/12 03:25 PM by ygmn » Logged

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« Reply #1 on: 02/19/05 11:14 AM »

Driveline Characteristics For All-Wheel Drive (AWD) and Four-Wheel Drive (4WD) Systems
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2005 and Prior Cars and Light Duty Trucks with Four-Wheel Drive (4WD) or All-Wheel Drive (AWD)

2003-2005 HUMMER H2

The purpose of this document is to help explain the operating characteristics of 4WD/AWD systems.

For specific operating instructions for individual transfer cases, please refer to the Owner's Manual or Service Information.

DEFINITIONS

AWD vs. 4WD

The very basic difference between AWD and 4WD is the intended usage of the systems.

AWD is usually intended for on-road use in inclement weather conditions, while operating smoothly on dry pavement by allowing for a difference in speed between the front and rear axles while turning. These systems are not selectable and do not have low range gearing for the transfer case. These systems can be found in cars or trucks.

4WD is primarily found in trucks and can be broken down into Part-Time, Full-Time, and Automatic Transfer Cases. These selectable systems have modes intended for on-road use and other modes intended for off-road or low traction situation usage. All current GM 4WD systems have a low range available in the transfer case.

CHARACTERISTICS

Disclaimer: Even though a certain amount of noise or feel can be expected, GM may offer service procedures or components, or change vehicle design, which may reduce perceived noise levels in the interest of customer satisfaction.

AWD

There are two different categories of AWD systems. The first category is full-time AWD. This type of transfer case delivers torque to the front and rear axles at all times. This ratio can vary depending on the system, but is usually about a 30/70% front to rear split but also can vary depending on traction conditions, up to 100% front or rear. This type of transfer case can have a viscous coupling for low traction conditions along with a planetary gear set to allow for difference in speeds between the front and rear axle, or an open type of planetary gear set differential, which uses brake based traction control for low traction conditions. An example of a vehicle with an open differential/traction control type of transfer case is a 2003 Escalade. RPO codes for these types of transfer cases are NP3 (NVG 149, BW 4473) or NR3 (BW 4476, 4481).

The second category is an on-demand AWD. This type of AWD basically delivers torque only to a primary driving axle unless reduced traction is experienced. At that point, the system electronically or mechanically will apply torque to the other axle. Depending on the type of system, this can provide up to 100% of the torque to the axle with traction. These transfer cases use an electronically actuated clutch pack, a hydraulically actuated clutch pack, or a viscous coupling to allow for a difference in speed between the front and rear axles. An example of an electronically controlled version of the On-Demand AWD is in the Smart Trak system in the 2003 Bravada. An example of a hydraulically operated On-Demand AWD is the Versa Trak system in the Aztek, while a viscous coupling is used in the Vibe. The RPO code for the Bravada is NP4 (NVG126). For some vehicle lines, there is not an RPO code. The only way to tell is by the Line Chassis VIN code, B for the Rendezvous/Aztek, V for the Venture/Montana or by SM for the Vibe.

PART-TIME 4WD

Part time 4WD refers to vehicles equipped with a transfer case to split power between the front and rear axles of the vehicle. This traditionally is a 2-speed selectable transfer case that can be shifted into 2HI, 4HI, 4LO and usually a Neutral position. The 4WD modes of Part time systems do not allow for a difference in speed between the front and rear axles while turning. This system effectively locks the front and rear propeller shafts together. When turning, the tires must allow for the different turning radius of the front and rear axles, which is why this is intended for low traction or off-road use. These systems have low range gearing for the transfer case. An example of a vehicle with this style of transfer case would be a Silverado with a manual shift transfer case (a shift lever on the floor) (RPO NP2) or a Colorado with a push button transfer case with a 2HI, 4HI, 4LO and Neutral position (RPO NP1). The RPO codes for this style of transfer case are NP1 (NVG 233, 243, 263, and T-150) or NP2 (NVG 231, 241,261, BW 4401, 4470).

FULL-TIME 4WD

A second version of a 4WD transfer case is a full-time 4WD transfer case. This style of transfer case has an open center differential to allow for different speeds between the front and rear axles and operates similar to an AWD system. This transfer case can be locked to operate like a Part-Time 4WD transfer case (no difference between front and rear prop-shaft speeds) and/or uses a traction control system to assist in low traction situations. These transfer cases also have a selectable low range. An example of this type of 4WD is the H2. RPO code is NR4.

AUTOMATIC TRANSFER CASES

The last category is a combination of 4WD and On Demand AWD. These transfer cases have a 2HI, Auto-4WD, 4HI, 4LO and Neutral position and would fall in the general 4WD category. This transfer case has the operating characteristics of both an On Demand AWD and a Part-Time 4WD system depending on the mode selected. This transfer case uses a clutch pack to allow for a difference in speed between the front and rear axles in the Auto-4WD mode. In the 4HI or 4LO modes, there is no allowance for the difference in speed between the front and rear axles. An example of a vehicle with this would be a Sierra with a push-button transfer case with a 2HI, Auto-4WD, 4HI, 4LO, and Neutral positions. The RPO code for these transfer cases is NP8 (NVG 226, 236, 246, 246 EAU).

DIAGNOSTIC AIDS

Always follow Strategy Based diagnostics and service information in the Electronic Service Information (eSI). eSI is constantly updated with new and more thorough information.

One of the first steps that can be used in determining if a noise is a characteristic is to compare it to a similar vehicle. The comparison vehicle should be as close to the original vehicle as possible, including mileage, GVW, RPO, chassis style (extended cab, short-bed...).

Attempts to correct characteristic types of noise and/or feel should not be performed. In most situations, these conditions will not be changed. Any attempts to correct these conditions may reduce customer confidence and inconvenience the customer while their vehicle is out of service.

4WD

While operating 4WD vehicles in the 2HI mode, they should perform similarly to an equivalent 2WD version of the vehicle. However there are still additional components on the vehicles and there may still be some slight differences in characteristics. Some Part-Time 4WD transfer cases may make a slight gear rattle type of noise when operated in 2HI at low engine speeds, similar to a manual transmission gear rattle type of noise. This can originate in the synchronizer assembly from engine harmonics. This noise will usually be reduced or eliminated while driving in a 4WD mode because the synchronizer assembly clearances will be taken up once engaged in 4WD. Operating the engine at a slightly higher rpm should reduce this noise.

While a vehicle is traveling down the road, the tires rotate a certain number of times per mile depending on the true tire radius. If all the tires do not have the exact same true radius (due to load, tire pressure, wear, build variances...), they will turn at slightly different rates. Also, unless the vehicle is traveling in a perfectly straight line, the front and rear axles are traveling in a slightly different arc, which means the front and rear axles are traveling at slightly different average speeds.

These systems either do not have a center differential or it has been bypassed (when used in 4HI or 4LO in Part-Time or Automatic systems, or 4HI Lock or 4LO Lock on Full-time 4WD), so the front and the rear propeller shafts will turn at the same speed, which leads to the front, and rear axles rotating at the same average speed. Using the 4WD modes (4HI, 4LO, 4HI Lock, 4LO Lock) will usually increase noise in the axles, transfer case and the rest of the driveline and is usually greater at higher speeds and will usually increase the more the vehicle is turned. As the vehicle turns, the front and rear axles follow a different arc. When this occurs, the only place to compensate for this binding is between the contact patch of the tires and the ground. This can feel like the vehicle is vibrating, crow hopping or grabbing. Even if the vehicle is driven in a straight line, there are slight differences in tire circumference that will cause some driveline binding. If a vehicle had the exact same size tires and was driven in a perfectly straight line, the fact that more parts are moving would mean that there would be more noise and possibly some feel of the system operating.

Use of 4HI or 4LO and 4HI Lock or 4LO Lock on Full-time 4WD is intended for use on a low traction surface such as snow, ice, mud or sand. On a low traction surface, the differences in front and rear axle speeds will not have as much effect on binding because of the lower traction levels between the surface and the contact patch of the tires. On a high traction surface, the higher traction levels will create more binding in the driveline.

As a result, a small amount of noise or feel of the system operating can be expected when using 4HI or 4LO in Part-Time or Automatic systems, or 4HI Lock or 4LO Lock on Full-time 4WD. The noise and feel can vary depending on the transfer case type, GVW ratings (generally the higher the GVW the more noise it will make), vehicle build variations, gear ratios in the axles, axle type, tires, and importantly driving conditions.

While the transfer case is in Neutral, with the engine running, some noise can be expected.

When transfer case is shifted to 4LO (or any time through or from neutral, for example from 2HI to 4LO or back) with the engine running, or with the vehicle moving, some grinding noise can be expected. In some vehicles you may experience a slight bump as the shift to 4LO is completed. This occurs because the 4LO range is not synchronized and there may be a difference in transfer case input shaft and output shaft speeds, especially if the vehicle is moving or equipped with an automatic transmission (residual torque from the transmission may be driving the transfer case input shaft). To minimize this noise the shift may be completed at a stop and in an engine off, key on mode. However, there may be an increased chance of having a blocked shift (some models must have the engine restarted to complete the shift). Noise and bump levels will vary between vehicles and even between shifts on the same vehicle. As a reminder, if attempting to determine if noise or bump experienced in one vehicle is a characteristic, be sure to compare to similar make vehicles. For example the shift to 4LO in a Colorado or Canyon will usually have more noise and/or bump feel than in a Silverado or Sierra. When driving in 4LO, the extra gear reduction will make additional noise compared to driving in 4HI. The automatic transmission shift characteristics will also feel different while operating in 4LO

AWD

AWD systems are intended for use in high and low traction situations without operator input. These systems will generally be quieter on high traction surfaces than a similar 4WD used in 4HI or 4LO. However, these systems will generally make more noise than a similar 2WD vehicle simply because there are more parts rotating and more gear sets interfacing. Once again, these systems may make more noise in turns, and in some situations you may be able to feel the system operating, even on high traction surfaces. Additionally, you may feel transfer case operation in on-demand AWD systems. These systems generally react to a speed difference between the front and rear axle and it may be possible to detect this by hearing a noise, or actually feeling the engagement of the system.

Automatic Transfer Cases

Automatic transfer cases will have the characteristics of both the Part-Time 4WD and the AWD systems depending on the mode selected. If the transfer case is operated in 4HI or 4LO, it will behave as a Part-Time 4WD system. If it is operated in the Auto 4WD mode, it will behave like an on-demand AWD system.

Driveline noises in 4WD or AWD vehicles caused by loading may be mistaken for transfer case or front axle noise because they can sound very similar. Four-wheel drive noises caused by loading may exhibit the following conditions:
   •    The noise will be greatest on a clear, dry road and decrease on a low traction surface. Front axle or transfer case noise caused by bearings, ring and pinion, or planetary gearing will be same similar on all surfaces.
   •    The noises or feel that can be expected will increase while making a tight turn.
   •    The noises may be changed from a deceleration to an acceleration condition (or acceleration to deceleration) by raising or lowering tire pressure at one end of the vehicle.

TIRES

Tire rolling rates can be a major factor in operational characteristics. Consider the following important items:
   •    All tires are the same size and brand. Tires of different brands may have different circumferences (or radius) even if they are the same size.
   •    Tires are set to factory recommended pressures. A tire with low air pressure will roll at a different rate.
   •    All tires have approximately equal amounts of wear. Tires with different amounts of wear will roll at different rates.
   •    All tires are the same tread type. Don't mix on-off road, all-season or street tires on the same truck as they may have different circumferences and roll at different rates.
   •    One or more of the tires may show small, short scratches around the circumference of the tire tread. The tire "scuffing" on the road surface causes these scratches.

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